and a Scotsman' Unpredictable situations: 'it won't rain today' Sporting tips: 'Pegleg is unbeatable in the 3:30 race' False excuses: 'he's in a meeting' Conjuring tricks: 'There's nothing up my sleeve' It's not always easy to see the. God gave humanity speech so that they could accurately share their thoughts - lying does the opposite. Socrates believes the second type of lie is called a lie in speech. That may explain why falsehoods are more likely to be told over the telephone, which provides more anonymity than a face-to-face conversation.
(Incidentally, when researchers refer to lying, they don't include the mindless pleasantries or polite equivocations we offer each other in passing, such as "I'm fine, thanks" or "No trouble at all." An "official" lie actually misleads, deliberately conveying a false impression. After all, think of the accusations of deceit leveled at politicians like Bob Packwood, Marion Barry, Dan Rostenkowski, Newt Gingrich, and Bill Clinton.
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Bok sets out some factors that should be considered when contemplating a lie: Are there some truthful alternatives to using a lie to deal with the particular problem? What moral justifications are there for telling this lie - and what counter-arguments can be raised against those justifications? Some philosophers say lying is bad because language is essential to human societies and carries the obligation to use it truthfully. Lying is bad because it's a basic moral wrong. So if telling a particular lie produces a better result than not telling it, then telling it would be a good thing. Fortunately, seems to offer some protection against deception: Spouses lie to each other in "only" about 10 percent of their major conversations. Few experts display much confidence in the deception-detecting abilities of the polygraph, or lie detector. In a University of Virginia study, psychologists asked pairs of same- friends to try to detect lies told by the other person.
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