of the smart parking system category together with examples of its implementation around the world will also be provided. Certain models are also not recommended with slow moving vehicles in stop and go traffic. A map of the drivers current position based on the GPS data along with the status of three of the nearby car park are sent to their mobile phones based on the patrons current location. Inclement weather, shadows, vehicle projection into adjacent lanes, day-to-night transition, vehicle/road contrast and water, salt grime, icicles and cobwebs on camera lens can affect performance, even though temperature compensation and built into some models. The vehicle detection zone can be easily enlarged by write cause and effect essay thesis statement combining the loops together. It is also more accurate and less susceptible than loops to stresses of traffic. On the other hand, the study by Hodel and Cong (2004) revealed options of using the internet via Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) enabled mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and even conventional computer in addition to SMS service for the drivers in accessing the information.
Here the entire row of car park space is extracted as ROI that will eventually be segmented to obtain the occupancy status for each individual car park space. The advantages offered by acoustic sensors are support for multiple lane operation in certain models as well as passive detection. The height and layout of the car park facility might also pose a problem as occlusion ( Mimbela and Klein, 2007 ; Mouskos., 2007 ) can occur at certain locations. Smart parking system, the smart parking system implemented mainly in the Europe, United States and Japan (.
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Apart from the systems discussed a compilation of the commercial systems available on the market as well as those still in research is presented by Mimbela and Klein, 2007 and Kastrinaki., 2003. In terms of environment conservation, the level of pollution can be reduced by decreasing vehicle emission (air pollutant) in the air (. The incorporation of rfid technologies in making payments were implemented in commercial systems such as Mobipower Ltd., which utilized rfid-based cellular technology and EZPass system have also developed payment system via rfid for car parks role of tv in our life essay and toll facilities ( Mouskos., 2007 ). Weight-in-Motion (WIM) sensors: Weight-in-Motion (WIM) sensors are able to detect the weight of the vehicle whereby the data acquired are extremely useful to highway planner, designers and law enforcement agencies. Its accuracy is behind load cell WIM and bending plate WIM system. Video image processor: A Video image processor typically consists of: one or more cameras, software for image interpretation and microprocessor based computer for digitizing and processing. (2007) delt with ROI region which are cropped to three parking spaces per patch and uses PCA for feature extraction while incorporating it with preprocessing, color histogram analysis and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for vehicle recognition. As contact methods requires contact of the cards with parking meter or payment machines in the facility, the latter offers more convenience to the patrons. (2008) robust enough to handle both the problem of occlusion and illumination invariance. The methods proposed by Hampapur. Researchers such as Wang and Chen (2004), Bi.